The Battle of Badr -A decisive battle

Abstract

The content contains the key events and narration of the Battle of Badr in Islam. It completely describes what happened before the battle, during the battle, and after the battle. It relates several events to the Battle of Uhud

Introduction

After the dawn of Islam; the Holy Prophet PBUH preached Islam to the people of Makkah. Only a few of them embraced Islam. However, the rest of the people were creating trouble for Muslims. The Muslims were maltreated in every manner. So, Allah commanded the Muslims of Makkah to migrate and they migrated to Madinah.  

The situation of Madinah was very friendly. The people accepted Islam and they were unified through the bonds of brotherhood. Madinah was a city of different religions and minorities. Notable among the Non-Muslims were the tribes of Jews. The peace treaty was signed between the Jews and the Muslims.  

Evil Schemes of Quraysh

Since Islam gained rapid growth and prosperity which was an eyesore for the Quraysh of Makkah as they could not hinder or trouble them with their mischiefs and heinous acts. Now it is important to note that the Muslims who could not migrate to Madinah were still facing severe punishments from Quraysh for being a Muslim and accepting the One true God, Allah Almighty. Many of them were being killed at Makkah. In that situation if the Muslims did not show their strength the Quraysh along with Madina’s evil people would have killed all the Muslims of Makkah. 

Raid on Nakhla

To stop and hinder the atrocities of Quraysh on the Muslims of Makkah; the Holy Prophet PBUH and his followers attacked several Quraysh trade caravans on their route to Syria. One successful was the attack was the raid on Nakhla which was one month and a half before the Battle of Badr. The commander was ‘Abdullah ibn Jahsh al-Asadi who was sent to Nakhlah as the head of 12 Emigrants with six camels. The Quraysh also spread everywhere the news of the raid and the killing by the Muslims in the sacred month (Rajab). Because of the timing, and because the attack was carried out without his sanction, Muhammad was furious about what had happened. 

Fighting in the Porhibited Month

The Arab pagans exploited this opportunity to accuse the Muslims of violating what is Divinely inviolable (fighting in the months considered sacred to the Arab pagans). Allah revealed a verse regarding fighting in the sacred months. The gist of that was “Fighting therein is a great (transgression) but a greater (transgression) with Allah is to prevent mankind from following the way of Allah” 

Strategy of Quraish

Now after this, the Quraysh wanted to wage a war and were planning for it economically. Abu Sufyan led a trade caravan to Syria. On its way back, he wrote a letter to the Quraysh which contained the false accusation that the Muslims were planning to attack his lightly guarded caravan (30 or 40 men). This enraged the Quraysh and it was made a pretext for the upcoming battle. Most notable big wigs of Quraysh participated under the leadership of Abu Jahl who was looking for any opportunity to fight the Muslims. They participated because they had big shares in the trade caravan of Abu Sufiyan as well. So, an army of about 1000 people from different people of Quraysh was assembled. They had camels, weapons, and food supply as well. 

Strategy of the Muslims

Let’s look at the side of Madina during this time. The Holy Prophet PBUH gathered the Sahaba and the Muslims to discuss the strategy of the war. Some of the Muslims suggested attacking the caravan of Abu Sufyan and benefit from the money and goods. However, Allah commanded the Muslims as  

Behold! Allah Promised you one of the two (enemy) parties, that it should be yours: Ye wished that the one unarmed should be yours, but Allah Willed to justify the Truth according to His Words and to cut off the roots of the Unbelievers.

Quran: Al-Anfal 8:7 

So, the Muslims started preparation against the battle with Abu Jahl. They had only 313 men with little horses and weaponry. They were almost one third the numbers of the foes.

Problems faced by Muslims

The Meccan army was in control of the stream of Badr, and the ground of their campsite was of firm clay. Contrarily, the Muslims were far from the stream and thus had trouble finding water. To make the matters worse, many Muslims became “unclean” (najis). And the ground under them was sandy which was likely to prevent fast running during the battle. 

Allah Almighty’s help

Allah helped them by sending rain which provided them with water enough for their needs and made the sandy ground firm for them, while the firm clay of the Meccans’ side became muddy, making their stand and maneuvers difficult. Referring to this, Allah says in the Qur’an: 

(Remember) when He caused drowsiness to fall on you as a security from Him and sent down upon you water from the cloud so that He might thereby purify you and take away from you the uncleanness of Satan, so that He might fortes your hearts and keep (your) footsteps thereby firm.

Qur’an, 8:11

The Day of the Battle

So on the 17 Ramadan 2 AH (March 13, 624 AD) the Muslims and the Quraish confronted each other at the place known as Badr which is 80 miles (130 km) southwest of Medina. In this battle prophet Muhammad (s) was the main leader or the commander in chief of the Muslim army. Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA), Hazrat Hamza (RA), Hazrat Umar (RA), and Hazrat Ali (RA) were the battlefield commanders. In the morning, Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) set up the Muslims’ army in a very good way. The archers were set in font while the spearmen and the infantry were set in the back of that. 

When the enemies saw the Muslim soldiers all setup, Allah put fear in their hearts, even though the Quraysh’s army was way bigger than the Muslims. Because of the fear that Allah put in the Quraysh’s heart, they became very scared to fight with the Muslims. But Abu Jahl brainwashed all the Quraysh to fight with the Muslims. 

It is important to note that Abu Sufyan wrote a letter to Abu Jahl that he was safe now from the Muslim attacks but still he attacked because he could not let go of the opportunity. 

The Battle Begins

Both battle groups positioned themselves face to face. The Prophet PBUH ordered the Muslims not to start the fight at first. But of course, the battle started by the arrogant Quraish. He wanted to take control of the Muslim’s water well all by himself. So, he started to fight with Hazrat Hamza (RA) and finally died. It was the first death at the battle of Badr. 

Before the battle began, Utbah took his brother Shayba and his son Waleed to challenge against the Muslim. So, from the Muslim army, 3 Ansar came forward to fight against them. Utbah realized that he didn’t recognize any of those Muslims because they were Muslims from Medina. So, then he said that he wants to fight with the Muslims from Makkah. 

Then Hazrat Muhammad PBUH sent Hazrat Hamza (RA), Hazrat Ali (RA) and Hazrat Ubaydah (RA) to fight with the enemies. Hazrat Hamza (RA) easily destroyed Shayba, Hazrat Ali (RA) also easily destroyed Waleed. But Hazrat Ubaydah (RA) and the bad Utbah were still fighting against each other. Hazrat Hamza (RA) and Hazrat Ali (RA) then came to help and destroyed the evil Utbah. Hazrat Ubaydah (RA) got hurt very badly and after 4 or 5 days later he died. 

Within a few minutes (just after) when the Quraysh lost their 3 best fighters, they became very upset and attacked the Muslims with their full strength. As planned before, the Muslims did not move from their place. When the enemies came closer, the Muslims started to strike their arrows and started to say loudly “Ahad, Ahad” or One, One”. Immediately, the enemies started to lose their life. This made the enemies feel weak mentally. 

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The Unseen Angels

When the enemies were very close to the Muslims, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) took a handful of dust and threw it onto the enemies and prayed to Allah (SWT) to destroy their face. He then ordered the Muslims to fight with the enemies in the name of Allah (SWT). The Muslims were mentally very strong and focused, and with Allah (SWT)’ blessings, it was very easy for them to destroy the enemies one by one. It was a very horrible moment for the Quraysh because they had to fight with the Muslims along with a thousand of unseen Angels. 

The Muslim Victory

Even though the prophet was the commander in chief for the Muslims, there was a point where the Prophet PBUH came out into the battlefield in order to encourage his people. At that point, Allah (SWT) sent Surah Kamar, verse 45 to give the good news of the Muslims’ victory. After they saw Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) on the battlefield, the Muslims’ army got more excited and fought like the strongest army in the world. When the Muslims fought the battle with the strength of a lion, all of a sudden the Quraysh were very confused. 

Iblis

Since Iblis (Devil) wanted the Quraysh to win the war, in that battle, he also joined by taking the shape of Suraqa. During the time of war preparations, he continued to give false hope to the Quraysh that victory was their and theirs alone, However, when he saw the army of angels, he ran away from the battlefield into the Red sea. In Surah Anfal, verse 48, Allah (SWT) mentions that Iblis escaped from the battlefield as 

And [remember] when Satan made their deeds pleasing to them and said, “No one can overcome you today from among the people, and indeed, I am your protector.” But when the two armies sighted each other, he turned on his heels and said, “Indeed, I am disassociated from you. Indeed, I see what you do not see; indeed, I fear Allah. And Allah is severe in penalty.”

Abu Jahl’s Death

On the other hand, as the commander in chief from the Qurayshs’ side, Abu Jahl was giving directions to his soldiers of the Quraysh army. Abu Jahal was protected by many soldiers. At one point, Muslims attacked Abu Jahl and he fell out from his horse. Of the two boys, who went to attack Abu Jahal, one of them, Mu’adh ibn Amr, was injured by Abu Jahl’s son and lost one of his hands. Along with him the other young boy, Mu’adh ibn Afra, died on that battlefield. Abu Jahl was badly injured and was lying on the battleground. Abdullah bin Mas’ood finally destroyed him.  

After Abu Jahl’s death, the Quraysh soldiers became scared and tried to run away from the battlefield. Unlike many other battles, these soldiers were not fighting for land, money, or honor, but they were fighting over the belief over the one and only God. The Muslims had to fight against their fathers, uncles, brothers, cousins, friends, and even their own sons. And even in that war, the Prophet’s uncle Abbas was captured as well. 

Holy Prophet PBUH’s daughter

Hazrat Zayd (RA) and Hazrat Usman (RA) did not fight in the battle when the Prophet left Medina for Badr because the daughter of the Holy Prophet Hazrat Rukaya (RA) was very sick. She was married to Hazrat Usman (RA), so he had to take care of her, and Hazrat Zayd (RA) was left to help him. Unfortunately, within a couple of days after the Battle of Badr Hazrat Rukaya (RA) died so the Prophet could not see his beloved daughter after his return to Madinah. 

Aftermath of the Battle

Fourteen brave Muslims died during the Battle. 6 were Muhajireen, the Muslims from Makkah, and 8 were Ansar, the Muslims from Madina. They were buried at Badr and that area is still marked even to this day. On the other side, 70 Quraysh were killed, and 70 soldiers were arrested by the Muslims. Out of those people who died, most of them were from different tribe’s leaders and important people from the Quraysh. 

So, because they were extremely bad people who made the Muslims suffer, those dead Quraysh bodies were thrown into a bad-smelling well. After the battle was over, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) stayed in Badr for three days to make sure that the Quraysh wouldn’t come attack again. 

Before the Prophet PBUH left Badr, he called all the souls from the dead Quraysh leaders and told them that, how terrible their luck was just because they did not accept the one and only true God Allah (SWT). And he told them that Allah (SWT) had kept his promise and gave the victory to the Muslims. 

Victory of the Battle of Badr

With Allah’s blessing, the Muslims won the battle of Badr. The Battle of Badr was not the Muslims fault because originally the Muslims did not want to fight they only did it to protect Islam it was the Quraysh leaders who thought that it would be very easy to destroy Islam and because of that; their plan was to come together in order to kill all of the Muslims in that place and then they would go to Medina in order to kill all of the other Muslims but Allah is the protector for the Muslims. 

The news of the Muslim’s unbelievable victory from the Battle of Badr reached Makkah through the Quraysh soldiers who escaped from the battlefield and came back to the city. The people of Makkah became extremely sad. They were ashamed that they had lost against a small group of Muslims in the battle then the Quraysh leaders made a decision not to show any sadness for their shameful loss in the battle so they ordered the families not to cry for those who lost the relatives in the battlefield. It seems so cruel that the people could not cry for the humans that died in Badr, but they could cry and be sad for everything else.

Jews Propaganda Failed

On the other side, the Jews in Madinah started spreading lies saying that the Muslims lost the battle and many of them were killed. The Muslims in Medina became very sad and worried. After the battle ended Hazrat Muhammad PBUH immediately sent two soldiers to Madinah to give the good news of the Muslim’s victory. All the Muslims in Medina became extremely happy and screamed loudly Allah Akbar (Allah is the great) 

Spoils Distribution

After the Quraysh lost the battle the enemies left a lot of their items in the battlefield and ran away so Allah sent some Quranic verses to the Prophet telling him how to distribute the items that the Muslims got from the enemies after the battle this law was important because this was a new law that was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad PBUH because all of the other Prophets before him used to collect the enemy’s items and put it in one place and then either they would burn them or Allah would destroy those items by a miracle. 

Treatement with the Prisoners

The Prophet started his journey back to Madinah from Badr. The Muslims were able to arrest some of the Quraysh during the war but on the way, Allah ordered to destroy two of the most terrible people out of everyone that they arrested because they were the true enemy of Islam. When they were in Makkah, these two people killed many of the Muslim and gave a very hard time for the Prophet  

After reaching Medina, the Prophet called a meeting with some of the Sahabas about the prisoners that were captured during the war. Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) advised the Prophet to use the prisoners to get money for their release, but Hazrat Omar (RA) advised the Prophet to destroy all the prisoners because they were the enemy of Islam. 

Listening to the different advice; the Prophet liked Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA)’s advice and decided to free all of the prisoners however in return they would have to pay anywhere from one thousand to four thousand dinars for their freedom however the prisoners who were very poor but knew how to read and write they could get their freedom by teaching at least ten Muslim children to read and write and then those who are poor and could not read or write the Prophet PBUH freed them anyways  

Power of the Victory

When the Muslims finally arrived in Medina all the Muslims were waiting to welcome the great heroes from the Battle of Badr. Madinah became so powerful that many of the Madinah’s people became Muslims. One of Madinah strong leaders; Abdullah bin Roubaix and his people became scared after the Muslims victory and because of that at that time he pretended to accept Islam and secretly planned to harm the Muslims  

Different enemies of the Muslims

After the Muslims won the battle of Badr, the Muslims created four different groups of enemies. Firstly, the Quraysh their oldest enemy. Secondly, the Jews from medina since they did not like the Muslim’s success because of religious and business reasons.

Thirdly, this was a group that was also from Medina and they had good connections with both the Quraysh and the Jews and they hated the Muslims but after the Battle of Badr for their own protection they pretended to accept Islam and this group was called the munafiq which means the fake Muslims who were not Muslims at all Abdullah bin Roubaix was the leader of this group

Lastly was the Bedouin who lived in the desert and lived in tents outside of Medina they were very bad people they would always steal and rob the other people’s property they also had a very good connection with the other groups the Quraysh and the Jews. 

Bedouins

Bedouins thought that Islam got stronger in Medina they could not continue to steal and rub the people so right after the Battle of Badr they started to gather lots of soldiers to attack Medina and destroy the Muslims. When the Prophet knew about the evil plan from the bedouins group, he immediately attacked them with 200 Muslim soldiers since the Muslims suddenly attacked them. They could not do anything, so they ran away and left 500 camels there.  

Quraysh

On the other side, the Quraysh were planning their own evil plan to destroy Muslims. There was a guy named Umayer Jumahi who gave a very hard time for the Muslims in Makkah. During the Battle of Badr, his son was arrested by the Muslims so one of the Quraysh leaders Safwan told him that he could destroy Prophet PBUH in Madinah with his help and advice. Umayer planned to go to Medina to release his son and destroy Prophet PBUH but as soon as he entered Medina Hazrat Muhammad PBUH knew his evil intention but still he welcomed him happily. He became very surprised and became a Muslim in Madinah. 

Jews

The Jews hated the Muslims from the beginning, but they did not show their true feelings to the Muslims; however, after the Muslim victory from Badr, the Jews started to show their hatred to the Muslims. In Madinah, there were three Jewish tribes. Among them, the Banu Qaynuqa were very wicked. They used to make jewelry, house items, and weapons. 

Hazrat Muhammad PBUH tried to remind them about the peace agreement that they had with the Muslims, but they argued but the Prophet PBUH did not become angry with them. He tried to convince them to bring peace in society, but the Jewish group could not accept Muslim friendship. They started to break the peace agreement and made their biggest mistake in the middle of the month of Shawwal about a month after the Badr. The injustice with the Muslim women in the market by a Jew made a Muslim man very angry after seeing that evil act and he destroyed that evil Jew. All the Jews killed him. 

Thus, the Holy Prophet PBUH called a war against the evil Banu Qaynuqa. He called his soldiers to attack. The enemy became very scared when they saw Muslims were coming, they hid in their fort which was a very protected area. He ordered his soldiers to block their fort so that no one could escape from there. When all their supplies were finished after fifteen days later. Everyone came out from their fort and surrendered to the Muslims. As a punishment, they were exiled. 

Consequences of the Battle

Ghazwat-us-Sawiq, Ghazwah Ghatfan, the poems of Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf were a direct consequence of the Muslim victory in Badr. Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf death made all the Jewish tribes very scared, so they started to follow the peace agreement to keep the peace in Medina. 

After the Battle of Badr, the Quraysh were very scared to go north like Palestine and Syria for their business trip because the route was beside Medina, so the Quraysh were very worried 

Quraysh decided to take a very very long way to Syria. It is important to understand that the Muslims were waiting to have a good friendship with the Quraysh but the Quraysh were still plenty to fight with the Muslims when the Prophet came to know about their business trip he sent they’d peace be upon him with 100 soldiers with forces to stop the Quraysh business group and succeeded. 

Battle of Uhud

At that point the Quraysh had only two options to solve their problem first was to make friends with the Muslims or second attack Medina and destroy the Muslims and the Quraysh chose the second option to fight with the Muslims then the Quraysh started to prepare for the Battle of Uhud.  

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